Thursday, June 11, 2020

The Nexus of the Business Ethics - Free Essay Example

Business ethics is the application of ethical values to business behavior. It applies to any and all aspects of business conduct, from boardroom strategies and how companies treat their suppliers to sales techniques and accounting practices. Ethics goes beyond the legal requirements for a company and is, therefore, discretionary. Business ethics applies to the conduct of individuals and to the conduct of the organization as a whole. It is about how a company does its business, how it behaves intrinsically. The philosophy behind ethics having relevance to business is based on the fact that company, like an individual, is an important factor in society. Companies do not operate in a vacuum, but are part of society. Just as society expects a certain standard of behaviour from individuals, it also expects businesses to abide by similar standards. According to MORI research in July 2002, 80 % of the UK public believe thatÂÂ  large companies have a moral responsibility to society. But people no longer trust business to do the right thing. In the same survey, 61 % of people thought large companies dont really care about the long-term environmental and social impact of their actions. Companies require what is often called a license to operate. In other words, they need the approval of society in order to cont inue doing business. People expect companies to look after their staff and tell customers the truth. They also increasingly expect companies to address their environmental impacts and make sure that the people who make their products are treated fairly, wherever the company operates. A companys core values and codes of ethical behaviour should underpin everything that the business does. How a company then chooses to interact with its global and local communities in the light of its values and ethics is often known as Corporate Responsibility or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Generally, a company has five principle stakeholders as those with whom the company has a financial relationship. They are shareholders; customers; employees; suppliers and the community (through the payment of taxes). Other interested parties who may have influence over the companys behaviour would include the media; campaigning NGOs; competitors and the regulators, although these latter might be fin ancial stakeholders if they have power to regulate prices. Comparative Study: Ethics can be defined as a code of conduct that is based on the understanding of what is wrong or right. Therefore business ethics may be described as a set or informal code of conduct that may be displayed between the employees and the employer, company and the clients, as well as an organization to its neighbors and business associates. The need to display acceptableÂÂ  business ethicsÂÂ  is based on the perception that a mutually acceptable code of ethics improves productivity and minimizes employee complaints. A business organization that embraces good moral standards usually wins the efforts of the worker. There are decreased employees complaints and increased morale whenever the ethics applied are acceptable by the workers. Poor ethical presentation signifies compromised product and service delivery. For instance, if a company uses unacceptable recruitment procedures, this may result to subordination by the staff through poor production. This may lead to reduced revenues. In addition, an organization may have a sound ethics presentation system such as through right recruitment channels and procedures, rewarding of employees, and reprimanding of workers.ÂÂ   This creates a favorable working environment for the employee. This impacts on the production and general income levels of the company. Therefore, if a company sets good ethics frameworks and its implementation, this significantly improves on its performance. When the tool of ethical presentation is misused by a company, this brings in confrontations between the staff and the management. There is reduced concentration in duty execution. At the same time, poor application of work ethics drives away customers especially when the element of customer care is not applied responsibly. Poor employee-customer communication may result to dissatisfaction of the external customer resulting to withdraw ofÂÂ  consumption behavior. Positively, ethical presentation can create and strengthe n clients-company bond thus nurturing loyalty within the clientele. Ethics presentation can also impact on the competitiveness of the company to the business community. A company that practices sound ethics usually triumphs over the employees and clients needs and expectations which are the greatest tools of success of an organization. There is increased productivity, diversification of skills through innovation and creativity. On the other hand, there is improved buying behavior from the customers. This drives the company to profitability hence assuming the advantage of market leader and corporate ethics. Ethics presentation instills discipline in work place transforming to high performance through efficiency, concentration and respect. A company earns recognition and pride hence influencing the prospective customers. A company that receives confidence from the workers succeeds in growth and has a competitive edge. One may argue that business and ethics doÂÂ  not necessaril y go together. Succeeding in business is largely about advancing our own private interestsaggressively competing against other people, beating them out for the same prize, and having unlimited ambition for money, position, and power. The moral life, by contrast, focuses on our duties to othersnot to hurt anyone (deliberately or accidentally), to place other peoples interests ahead of our own when its called for, and always to treat others with the dignity and respect they deserve. Yet being scrupulously honest and caring in our business dealings with others can sometimes cost us sales, deals, money, and promotions. Refusing to go along with other peoples unethical behavior can even cost us our jobs. When taken too far in business, even healthy self-interest, competitiveness, and ambition can go turn into selfishness, aggression, and greedtraits that are clearly at odds with the moral life. It seems, then, that taking ethics seriously in business extracts a price and may make success more difficult to come by. But if this is true, why should any of us make the effort to do whats right? In particular, what would we say to someone who asks, Why should I be ethical?ÂÂ  Whats in it for me?. The most suitable response to this argument is to draw an empirical scenario of business world in 21st century where news is accessible and reachable by virtue of information technology all over the world. Nowadays, companies are open to public with loads of information regarding their business conducts and products. And any unfair business practice can badly affect the company reputation and destroy it completely. So it is for the sake of business itself to operate within a fair and ethical way. Moreover, having an ethical policy is good governance practice and is one of the hallmarks of a well-run business. It can reassure investors and other stakeholders about the companys approach to its non-financial risks. Besides providing a license to operate, having an ethical poli cy can also help to protect and enhance corporate reputation; can motivate and encourage loyalty in staff and can be useful in terms of risk management. The Institute of Business Ethics analyses the relationship between ethics and reputation risk management. Ethics policies are also an important aspect of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) and can stand companies in good stead with indices such as the FTSE4Good or the Dow Jones Sustainability Group.ÂÂ  In addition, another research shows that from three of four measures of corporate value (EVA, MVA and P/E ratio), it was found that, during 1997-2001, those companies in the sample that had had a code of ethics for at least five years outperformed a similar sized group who said they did not have a code. A number of companies have publicly claimed that ethics is good for their business. Well known for its ethical stance, The Co-operative Bank claims that itsÂÂ  ethical and ecological positioning makes a sizable contributio n to the banks profitability. The banks 2002 Partnership Report claims that,ÂÂ  for 2000, the profit attributable to ethically motivated customers was stated at between 15 % and 18 % of the banks profit before tax. Case Study: A series of external and internal factors are putting pressure on companies to address ethics. These include the increasing influence of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs); a pervasive media in search of stories; the knock-on effect of corporate accountancy scandals such as Enron and WorldCom; increasing legislation and the growth of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI), as well as changing consumer and employee expectations. In 1977, following a series of scandals involving bribery by U. S. firms abroad including the Lockheed $12 million bribery case that led to the fall of the Japanese government at the time, the U. S. government passed the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The Act was historic because it was the first piece of legislation that attempted to control the actions of U.S. corporations in foreign countries. The Act prohibited U. S. companies from paying large sums of money (or their equivalent) to high level government officials of other countries to obtain special t reatment. A number of companies prior to the Act had already adopted the policy of refusing to pay bribes as a matter of ethical principle. IBM, among others, was known for adherence to this policy, as was Motorola. The Act forced all companies to live up to the already existing ethical norm. Its critics complained, however, that it put U. S. companies at an unfair disadvantage vis-Ã  -vis companies from other countries that were permitted to pay bribes. The U. S. government applied what pressure it could to encourage other countries to follow its lead, and finally twenty years later the OECD countries agreed to adopt similar legislation. In 1978 General Motors and a group of other U. S. companies adopted what are known as the Sullivan Principles, which governed their actions in South Africa. The signatories agreed that they would not follow the discriminatory and repressive apartheid legislation in South Africa and would take affirmative action to try to undermine apartheid not only by not following the existing South African apartheid statutes, but also by lobbying the South African government for change. Adherence to the Principles was seen as a way by which American companies could ethically justify doing business in South Africa. They were adopted in part as a response to public pressure on the companies to leave South Africa. The Principles have become a model for other voluntary codes of ethical conduct by companies in a variety of other ethically questionable circumstances. By the 1980s many companies had started reacting to calls for ethical structures, and more and more started adopting ethical codes and instituting ethics training for their employees. Each wave of scandals, which seemed to occur every ten years or so, resulted in more pressure for companies to incorporate ethics into their structures. In 1984 the Union Carbide disaster at its plant in Bhopal, India, which killed thousands of people and injured several hundred thousand, focuse d world attention on the chemical industry. This led to the chemical industrys adopting a voluntary code of ethical conduct known as Responsible Care, which became a model for other industries. In 1986, in response to a series of reported irregularities in defense contracts, a special Commission Report on the situation led to the establishment of the Defense Industry Initiative (DII) on Business Ethics and Conduct, signed by thirty-two (it soon increased to fifty) major defense contractors. Each signatory agreed to have a written code of ethics, establish appropriate ethics training programs for their employees, establish monitoring mechanisms to detect improper activity, share their best practices, and be accountable to the public. The DII became the model for what has been the most significant governmental impetus to the business ethics movement, namely, the 1991 U. S. Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Corporations. That law took the approach of providing an incentive for corpo rations to incorporate ethical structures within their organizations. If a company could show that it had taken appropriate measures to prevent and detect illegal and unethical behavior, its sentence, if found guilty of illegal behavior, would be reduced considerably. Appropriate measures included having a code of ethics or of conduct, a high-placed officer in charge of oversight, an ethics training program, a monitoring and reporting system (such as a hotline), and an enforcement and response system. Fines that could reach up to $290 million could be reduced by up to 95 percent if a company could showÂÂ  bona fideÂÂ  institutional structures that were in place to help prevent unethical and illegal conduct. The result was a concerted effort on the part of most large companies to incorporate into their organizations the structures required. This led to the development of a corporate position known as the Corporate Ethics Officer, and in 1992 to the establishment of the Corp orate Ethics Officer Association. The most recent legislative incentive to incorporate ethics in the corporation came in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, passed as a result of a rash of scandals involving Enron, WorldCom, Arthur Andersen and other prominent corporations. The Act requires, among other things, that the CEO and CFO certify the fairness and accuracy of corporate financial statements (with criminal penalties for knowing violations) and a code of ethics for the corporations senior financial officers, as well as requiring a great deal more public disclosure. Corporations have responded to legislative and popular pressure in a variety of ways. The language of social responsibility rather than explicitly ethical language is still probably the most commonly used. Self-monitoring of adherence to a corporations stated principles and self-adopted standards is becoming more common, and some companies have voluntarily adopted monitoring of their practices, policies and plants by independent auditors. The notion of a Triple Bottom Line, which involves financial, social and environmental corporate reporting, has been adopted by a number of companies. Other popular reporting mechanisms include corporate environmental sustainability reports and social audits, which vary considerably in what is reported and how it is reported. Ethical investing is another aspect of the movement, and mangers of ethical investment funds have begun proposing stockholder proposals as a means of encouraging more ethical behavior on the part of corporations in which they own stock. Conclusion: The above discussion reveals that ethics is must to do business well and to maximize profit. However, it is not so smooth as selfishness and unfair market completion creates obstacles in the way and encourages people to resort to unethical means to get the best out of it. But in the long run only that business remains profitable which continuously provides good quality products and keeps following fair policy.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

5th Grade Informational Essay Samples

5th Grade Informational Essay SamplesThere are many excellent sources of fifth grade informational essays samples that are available for the writer to choose from. It is important that the writer understand the style that will be appropriate for his or her own education level, prior to jumping into the sample.A sample in writing such a piece will be appropriate for the fourth and fifth grades, but most writers will find that these samples are not appropriate for their level of writing ability. These writing samples will be too specific and may not translate to a fifth grade type of essay. However, for the sixth and seventh grades, a fifth grade style is the perfect fit. For this specific level of writing, the seventh and eighth grades would be the ideal time to begin writing an essay.In addition to a sample, it is essential that the writer begin planning the structure of the essay. Many informational essays will only have two parts, although others will have five or more parts. In th is case, the writer should be able to easily follow the structure of the essays.Writing about five to seven paragraphs will give the writer enough space to properly develop the pieces. There are five different formats that the writer can choose from. The format chosen depends on the reader and the format is usually based on the topic of the piece. A good way to know which format to use is to compare the style with the content of the piece.One of the best informational essay samples that the writer will find is the free writing sample. This type of writing sample is offered to writers by the publishers and authors. The free writing sample provides a writer with a list of informational topics to write about. By doing a little research, the writer will be able to determine which topics to write about and then write about those topics.Free writing samples often have more than one format that the writer can choose from. There is often more than one format that can be used. A writer shoul d carefully consider each format that he or she has. In this way, the writer will not be overwhelmed by the choices that are available.Free writing samples will be the best source of tips for the writer who wants to learn how to write essays in this particular style. Many writers choose to begin using this format because they have found that it is the most effective in terms of format. This writer has also found that there are more than one format that is more suitable for the writer to choose from.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Jidai - What does the Japanese word jidai mean

Word of the Day: jidai Pronunciation: Click here to listen to the audio file. Meaning: a time; a period; an era Japanese characters: 時ä » £ 㠁˜ã   Ã£ â€ž Example: Ima wa jidai ga kawatteiru.ä »Å Ã£  ¯Ã¦â„¢â€šÃ¤ » £Ã£ Å'Ã¥ ¤â€°Ã£â€š Ã£  £Ã£  ¦Ã£ â€žÃ£â€šâ€¹Ã£â‚¬â€š Translation: Things are not what they used to be. More Words of the Day: Previous wordNext wordWord of the Day by email

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The New Religion Pop Culture - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1464 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Culture Essay Tags: Pop Culture Essay Did you like this example? The New Religion: Pop Culture Aims and Objectives Summary The dissertation will explore and demonstrate the transformation and recreation of pop culture, with emphasis on current pop music and pop video. The way of life of society has transformed in time as a result of new beliefs, new ideas and new symbols. Any à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"religionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ stopped expanding and even existing as a direct consequence of its inability to recreate itself and give new meaning to old symbols and signs for the continually à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"convertingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ society. The pop culture, by ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s nature, recreates popular archetypes that are deep inoculated in the psychology of humanity as sex, religion, death, war, politics, etc. Through ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s continual transformation and recreation of style the pop culture is becoming the perfect manipulative and dominating way of life. Is the pop culture transforming in an always present, contemporary way of life, the new religion that recreates ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s artistic expression in order to expand and grow? This is the research question around which this research is based. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The New Religion Pop Culture" essay for you Create order The main aim of this dissertation is to identify and explain the recreation of symbols and themes in todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pop music and pop video and to show the influence of this transition from à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"occasional believerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"fanaticà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s society. In order to accomplish this aim the following objectives need to be analysed and discussed: Analysis of old and new symbols in pop music and pop videos (signs and symbols take place of reality à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" hyper reality ) The birth of pop culture and ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s evolution The continuous recreation of style in pop culture (sexuality without gender, religious representations as show, death as artistic expression of freedom) The impact of pop culture on society as the perfect religion Artists (expression creators) in pop music culture : Madonna, Lady Gaga (the use of symbols as strategic components in the Fame experiment; symbols with no meaning as surface style) The analysis of these objectives will also demonstrate that reinventions of universal archetypal subjects are essential for the consumerism mass-media. Pop music is an important part of mass-media which has a huge impact on population. Pop culture creates the future society; a society that religiously consume media just for ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s own personal satisfaction. Culture is a way of life and culture exists everywhere because is created by our choices. The pop culture is defined by mass-production, mass-consumerism, choice manipulation and reinforcement and recreation of symbols in order to grow and expand. This dissertation will also demonstrate how pop music, pop videos and popular performances are influencing our choices by repeatedly representing popular brands and by touching on the most primal subjects we all can relate to. Brief Example and Review of two relevant texts Living to tell: Madonnaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Resurrection of the Fleshly is the name of Chapter 7 from Susan McClaryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s book Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. This Chapter analyse and debates the influence of pop artist Madonna to pop music as well as her artistic expression, main themes and symbols. For example themes as survival, pleasure, sexual transformation, resistance to closure, etc. are deeply analyzed. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The central dichotomy she inevitably invokes is that of the virgin and the whore. Her name, her apparently casual flaunting of crucifixes and rosaries as accessories, and her overtly erotic dress and behaviour have consistently thrown into confusion the terms of that standard binary opposition; but what precisely she means by this play of signs has never been obvious. Indeed, many critics have taken her use of religious imagery to be a prime example of what Frederic Jameson calls à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“blank pasticheà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?: the symbols are seen as detached from their traditional contexts and thus as ceasing to signify.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Feminine Endings, pg 163) The aforestated passage is very important in achieving the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Artists in pop music cultureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Analysis of old and new symbols in pop music and pop videosà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"The continuous recreation of style in pop cultureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ objectives as is not limited to analyzing the symbols and signs but also, based on this symbols transformation, supports the idea of symbols with no meaning as surface style and religious representations as show. Another relevant text is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s like feminism, but you donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have to burn your braà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢: Girl power and the Spice Girlsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ breakthrough 1996-1997 which is Chapter 10 in Andrew Blakeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s book Living Through Pop. This Chapter presents, analyse and debates the evolution and transformations in pop music culture, as well the themes and symbols used by pop music group Spice Girls. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“We decided we wanted to be more than a band. We wanted the whole philosophy of the Spice Girls to be like a cult à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Girl Power. We havenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t invented it à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" weà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ve just tapped into how girls are feeling. Ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s like feminism, but you donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have to burn your bra. And the message is: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢You can do what you want à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" look the way you want à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" as long as you believe in yourself.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Living through pop, pg 163) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Madonna is constructed as a fetishistic icon serving by contrast to point up the notion that the Spice Girls are basically ordinary and therefore can be emulated. Although Madonna, like the Spice Girls articulates a form of sexual empowerment for women, in many ways Madonnaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pop persona works very differently. Both Spice Girls and Madonna play with the dichotomy between one-dimensional images of femininity and the sense of a producing presence behind them, but with different resultsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Living through pop, pg 166) These passages are serving as relevant data evidence for most of the dissertation objectives. Research Strategy The research question is a practicable question which can be answered during the dissertation allocated time-scale by using the research resources and academic knowledge of my course. The research will largely use the qualitative research approach. This research approach constructs and supports the dissertation that explores and analyse the transformation of style in popular culture. The main benefit of this research approach is ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s depth of exploration and understanding of the phenomena. For this research several types of qualitative research are needed: Antipositivism à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The research concentrates on pop cultural  transformation,  values,  symbols and social processes viewed from a  subjective perspective (non-scientific) Critical Analysis à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The research will critically analyse the pop culture transformations and their media social impact Interpretivism The main purpose of interpretivism is that the whole subject needs to be examined in order to understand the phenomena. The dissertation will examine the evolution of pop culture from ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s birth to present times focusing on representations (signs, symbols, artistic performances and expression) Research methodology The data needed for the dissertation will be collected using the following methods: Historical gathering Is defined as a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Gay, 1996) This research method is fundamental for my dissertation because ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s the primary way of collecting data for several dissertation objectives (The birth of pop culture and ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s evolution; Analysis of old and new symbols in pop music and pop videos). Case Study It is based on an in-depth investigation and analysis of a single entity by collecting  data, analyzing  information, and reporting the results. The research needs the simultaneously use of both case study types- descriptive and explanatory. The following pop music-videos case studies focusing on style, themes and symbols will support the achievement of the research objectives: Madonna à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Music/American Life; Lady Gaga à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Telephone; Madonna à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Vogue/Like a Prayer and Lady Gaga à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Alejandro. Media ethnography This research method is needed in order to define how pop music has influenced behaviour and society. A relevant media ethnographic research has been conducted by Paul Willis Symbolism and Practice: A Theory for the Social Meaning of Pop Music where he investigates the relationship between media and audiences and how pop music influenced young people in Britain. Validity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Validity is concerned with whether the findings are à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"reallyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ about what they appear to be about (Robson, 2002:93)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? The issue of validity is addressed in this research using triangulation. Triangulation involves the use of multiple sources to enhance the rigour of the research (Robson, 2002:174). This research also uses data triangulation, the use of more than one method of data collection. Ethical Research The research will follow the Professional ethical guideline and strive to protect the rights, privacy, dignity of those that are referred in this research, personal information will be treated confidentially and any information will be ethically used. Robson (2002:203) highlights the political issues involved with any research, for example, whose interests the research is serving. The sole purpose of this research is the completion of an Undergraduate level dissertation and is not being undertaken to serve any other interests.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Discovery Of The Dna Double Helix - 1913 Words

The discovery of the DNA double helix is known to be accredited to James Watson and Francis Crick. Watson describes the events that led up to the discovery in his book The Double Helix. Although they both have put in a significant amount of time and work to find the structure of DNA, one individual who was key to putting their pieces together was Rosalind Franklin. Considering Franklin’s efforts and contributions to the X-ray diffraction images of DNA, which have helped Watson and Crick with their model building and discovery of the DNA double helix, Watson fails to give credit where credit is due. I thoroughly enjoyed reading Watson’s book because it showed the way in which Watson perceived his journey in how he came to discover the DNA structure. Watson and Crick went through countless trials and errors trying to figure out the structure of DNA and each error lead them closer to solving this mystery and staying ahead of their competitors, namely Linus Pauling. Their first conundrum was the arrangement of the four bases around the sugar-phosphate backbone. He referred to J.N. Davidson’s book The Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids for the base formulas (Watson 182). At first, Watson hypothesized whether â€Å"the chains would be held together by hydrogen bonds or by salt linkages involving the negatively charged phosphate groups† (Watson 53). He made several observations based on his hypothesis about the four types of nucleotides in DNA. One was that â€Å"one or more hydrogen atoms onShow MoreRelatedThe Discovery Of The Double Helix And Dna979 Words   |  4 PagesDNA is the central dogma of modern biology, it is present in all living things from bacteria to mammals. DNA carries the genetic information of the organism and is used in processes like mitosis, meiosis and protein production. The reason as to why I chose this topic specifically is because it is central to my favourite aspect of biology, genetics. Prior to the discover of the double helix and DNA itself there was some information and experiments done on genetics with what little knowledge theyRead MoreYu Sun Park. Dr. Murphy. Lab Section 4. Discovery Of Dna1394 Words   |  6 Pagessection 4 Discovery of DNA double helix: Related to both Scientific and Humane Aspects DNA, the molecule of life that carries genetic information in humans and almost all other organisms, has been considered as one of the greatest discoveries until now. If DNA could not have been discovered, we would not be able to do or test numerous things such as paternity test and pathological confirmation. There are four main scientists who contributed their lives, knowledge, and ambitions to find out the DNA doubleRead MoreThe Characters In James Watsons The Double Helix1521 Words   |  7 Pages The Double Helix Essay In James Watson’s The Double Helix, there are four main scientists that all work towards the discovery of the double helix. These four people discovered the double helix and forever changed biology. Their names are James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins. The winners of the Nobel prize in real life were James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins. Rosalind was ineligible to receive the reward because she died prior to the award beingRead Moreresearch studies Essay1521 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Irahani, Shara-aisa A. BEEd-I EdSci 102-A Feb. 18, 2014 â€Å"Race for the Double-Helix† What were your first impressions of the main characters? James Watson: An American biologist man who has a research about the DNA. For me, James Watson at first was a bit weird guy because of the way he stared and looked at people around him. He is a mysterious guy and a bit naughty to the ladies he has seen. As one of the character said, he is the â€Å"boy-wonderer†. He is alsoRead MoreCharles Crick And James Watson On The Structure Of The Complex Molecule Known As Dna Essay1293 Words   |  6 PagesCrick and James Watson for formulating the structure of the complex molecule known as DNA. These discoveries were a direct result of the accumulation of many scientists’ earlier analyses and findings of the DNA. Before Watson and Crick had developed the double-helical structure of DNA, indication of this genetic material had been revealed around the 1850’s. During the century following the first evidence of DNA, subsequent researchers had been eagerly examining the physical and chemical componentsRead MoreThe Theory Of The Double Helix1321 Words   |  6 PagesAs demonstrated in The Double Helix, a significant process used to make a discovery is working together with other scientists and get more information from them by learning about the results from each lab. Francis and Watson would constantly communicate their ideas and theories with each other for feedback which in return helped them gain more information that could be applied to their models. They will share their ideas with other scientists to help further develop and refine their theories. InRead MoreThe Discovery In 1953 Of The Double Helix, The Twisted-Ladder1608 Words   |  7 PagesThe discovery in 1953 of the double helix, the twisted-ladder structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), by James Watson and Francis Crick marked a milestone in the history of science and gave rise to modern molecular biology, which is largely concerned with understanding how genes control the chemical processes within cells. In short order, their discover y yielded ground-breaking insights into the genetic code and protein synthesis. During the 1970s and 1980s, it helped to produce new and powerfulRead MoreA Research Study On Dna1322 Words   |  6 Pagesentirely based on DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the relatively recently discovered molecule that â€Å"forms the molecular basis for heredity†. In specific, the project to be undertaken focuses on genes, specific sections of DNA, that are responsible for communicating to an organism â€Å"instructions for synthesizing every protein† an organism would require. In the middle of the nineteenth century, a large amount of scientists were involved in the search for the structure of the all-important DNA molecules. TheRead MoreThe Double Helix Dna ( Deoxyribonucleic Acid ) Structure1724 Words   |  7 Pagesgreatest minds of the last century and arguably the biggest step in to creating the double helix DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) structure. It goes without saying, that the ba sis of human life and why we are the way we are, is due to the DNA that is found on the double Helix. We can see all of our traits from our skin colour all the way to nail thickness, which are a combination of traits from both our parents. The DNA structure also allows us to view where elements come in to play and how our geneticRead MoreThe Contributions Of Rosalind Franklin940 Words   |  4 Pagescontribution as a result of her work with DNA. Prior to this time, DNA was still a mystery in how impactful its purpose could be to society and the growing age of science and technology. DNA became of importance to learn about the foundation in relation to genetic and hereditary. Without the contribution of Franklin, todays understanding of the DNA structure would not exist. Rosalind Franklin died before the Nobel Peace Prize was given for the discovery of DNA. If she been alive, her receipt of the

Cultural Context in View from a Bridge by Arthur Miller

Examine how cultural context is established in two of the texts on your comparative course When examining the topic of cultural context, one must become immersed in the world of the texts under discussion. The historical and geographical setting of a work creates a world that the characters can credibly inhabit. They are influenced and shaped by the customs, moral values and social structures of that society. The cultural environment created offers the reader a context in which to explore thematic and character development. We may also appreciate the literary techniques that allow such a vivid world to be set before our imaginations. Credible and vivid environments are created in the two texts I wish to explore in this essay. In How†¦show more content†¦(When am I goanna be a wife again Eddie?). The Moores relationship is long dead and reduced to formal sniping across the dinner table, where the humiliated Alec watched the daffodils and kept my mouth shut. We see the consequence of sexual repression in a family context in both texts: In Babylon, we learn that the source of Mrs. Moores bitterness is the fact that an unexpected pregnancy forced her into a marriage of convenience. She cruelly disinherits in a sentence and tells Alec as a way of convincing him to go to war. The social conventions are strict and innocence is maintained through ignorance. Alec and Jerry are both virgins and on a balmy night before embarking for France, Jerry longs to be with a girl once before he goes to war. We also see Eddies marked discomfort at any evidence of Catherines growing sexuality and he struggles to repress the inappropriate feelings he has towards her. He cannot discuss his intimate feelings with his own wife and like the Moores, much remains unsaid between the couple and the silence only widens the gulf. The authoritarian, rigid class-bound nature of society can be seen in how Mrs Moore seeks to end Alecs friendship with Jerry. Alec is socially isolated and constrained by the obligations of his class. His father tries kindly to explain the reasons why he cannot remain friends with Jerry: Â…The responsibilities and limitations of the class into which you areShow MoreRelatedA View From A Bridge1842 Words   |  8 PagesFollowing the Second World War in 1945, America emerged from the conflict as a prestigious superpower and saw the 1950s begin as an era of prosperity and wealth. However, the beginnings of the Cold War saw increased tension between the USA and the USSR and the capitalist and communist ideologies. These clashes along with the rise of nuclear power contributed to a tense and fearful atmosphere, giving rise to a period of McCarthyism. This saw communist ‘witch hunts’ and people accused and prosecutedRead MoreA View from the Bridge: Story of a Brooklyn Lo ngshoreman6101 Words   |  25 PagesArthur Miller first heard the story of a Brooklyn longshoreman that would become the basis for his play, A View from the Bridge in 1947. He would not write it until 1955, when it was produced on Broadway as a simple, unadorned one-act. Miller would then develop and expand it into a full-length production with director Peter Brook in London in 1956. The incubation period of A View from the Bridge, spanning from 1947 to 1956, straddles and absorbs a host of major events both on the national landscapeRead More The Role of Alfieri in Miller’s A View from the Bridge Essay7327 Words   |  30 PagesThe Role of Alfieri in Miller’s A View from the Bridge Arthur Miller is now regarded as one of the world’s greatest dramatists. In his plays he explores the struggles of the ordinary man against authority and insurmountable odds. It is his ability to dramatize the attempts to find the balance between the different conflicts of life that is Miller’s feature as a writer. â€Å"Many of his plays look at the position of the individual in relation to their responsibilities and position in society andRead MoreExamine the Ideas of Manliness, Hostility and Aggression in a View from the Bridge. How Are These Ideas Connected?2688 Words   |  11 PagesExamine the ideas of Manliness, Hostility and Aggression in A View from the Bridge. How are these ideas connected? A View from the Bridge: a tragic drama piece, written by Arthur Miller and first published in 1955. Curtained by the never-ending dramatics of the play, is quite basically a fight for an unconditional love, portrayed by a man of whom perplexes his emotions like no other (Eddie Carbone). The play itself is set in the 1950’s; times when masculinity and dominance we’re vital for a manRead MoreWhy Marco and Rodolfo Came to America in A View From the Bridge by Arthur Miller2320 Words   |  10 PagesWhy Marco and Rodolfo Came to America in A View From the Bridge by Arthur Miller The play A view from the bridge the author, Arthur Miller, is presented to the audience as a tragedy but not a classical, a new, modern tragedy. I still employs the elements well known to classical tragedies but then it is set in the docks of America where illegal immigrants are not uncommon to be hiding. There are many cultural issues surrounding the play and the modern tragedy genre likeRead MoreEssay on A View from the Bridge - Setting2738 Words   |  11 PagesA view from the bridge - Setting. The play A view from the bridge is set in the1950s, a tragedy about the lives of some Italian immigrants, whose paths cross, ending in death, separation and tragedy. The play is full of important events, and places, and it is its places we are looking at. Places are used by the author, Arthur Miller, to symbolize, represent, and portray a range of views, people, and actions. Certain places, like Italy, are mentioned lots, but no scenes themselves takeRead MoreA View from the Bridge Essay10643 Words   |  43 Pages What does the Bridge in View From The Bridge symbolize? A View From The Bridge is a play written by the American playwright Arthur Miller, a prominent figure in American Theatre, this Greek tragedy adapted drama was written to emphasize on the themes of incestuous love, jealousy and betrayal. In simple geographical terms, the ‘bridge’ in the title of the play is the Brooklyn Bridge, the one that spans the East River, between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Manhattan, New York. The title drew attentionRead MoreThe Changing Relationship Between Individual and Society in Modern Drama3272 Words   |  14 Pages who wrote in the last half of the 19th Century, broached the subject from a rather feminist angle, stipulating that it was wrong to view an individual woman as a nonentity without rights outside the role of motherhood or marriage; In the 1930s and 40s, German- born writer Bertolt Brecht, produced a series of plays following ideologies common of Nihilist and later Marxist values; Following the second world war, Arthur Miller wrote to American audiences that individuals and their society are equallyRead MoreThe Obsessive Nature Of The Love Felt By Othello, By William Shakespeare2617 Words   |  11 Pagesare made against him, such as ‘’the thick-lips’’ and the metaphor of the ‘‘old black ram is tupping [the] white ewe’’. With this influence from Bradley, it could convince the audience to empathise with the Moor, instead of reject him for his consequential actions. Bradley’s vision of Othello as a romantic is paradoxical to that of Iago’s and this could stem from how Othello believes that by loving Desdemona, he has sacrificed a part of his life as an element that naturally comes with marriage; ‘‘ButRead MoreNature and Scope of Marketing Ethics6686 Words   |  27 Pagesto recognize that it should be examined from an individual, organizational, and societal perspective. Examining marketing ethics from a narrow issue perspective does not provide foundational background that provides a complete understanding of the domain of marketing ethics. The purpose of this chapter is to define, examine the nature and scope, identify issues, provide a decision-making framework, and trace the historical development of marketing ethics from a practice and academic perspective. DEFINITION

DBQ Reforming Movements affect on the Democracy o Essay Example For Students

DBQ: Reforming Movements affect on the Democracy o Essay f a NationWhen one hears the term democracy, the concept of rule by the people and freedom come into mind. Often reform movements, free elections, and suffrage activities fit into this category such as those of the period from 1825 to 1850 in the young United States. This period consisted Americans who rebelled against this newly adopted governmental concept, while others accepted it with relief that they had a voice in the governments decisions. The idea that the civilians could take control gave way to a new era of reform movements during this time period. The validity of the statement, Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals, was both verified and rejected by the citizens of America of the mid 1850s, yet was completely valid. The fight for reformations of laws and institutions by the Americans showed desperate cries for freedom and furthermore, proof of the poor governmental policy that existed. As stated in Document F, the overall goal of reformer s was to, unite a voluntary Association, and strive for equality and freedom for men and women of all races. Leading up to the reform movement was the growth in the power of the national government and the expression of peoples feelings of defiance towards the decisions and laws created by government officials. Starting in 1825, when John Quincy Adams held the presidency, a number of reforms including the temperance movement; a movement hoping to ban alcohol consumption, the womens rights movement, and reforms related to education, religion, and imprisonment of criminals, were enforced in hope of massacring the current national government and giving the nation a more democratic union. While many American citizens were highly against these movements seeking freedom, QUACK EFORMERSthese systems of reform disown the past, condemn what has been, and propose the creation of an entirely new social order numerous African Americans in the south and white men and women in the north sacrificed their lives to obtain democratic rule in their beloved country (Document G). The temperance movement was rei nforced by religious (Christian) and moral beliefs. US citizens felt the amount of alcohol consumption was ridiculous and caused the integrity of people to decline, and because the government had not stepped in and reinforced its danger of over consumption, the people felt it was their duty to stand up for what they felt was right. Suffragettes, women who were determined to spread equality for women, started the Seneca Falls doctrine and acted as leaders of the womens rights movement. Ever since America was established when Columbus came across the Atlantic, women were not given he same rights as me. Unable to vote, and quarreling with politicians who were resistant to change, women created their own doctrine resembling the United States Declaration of Independence. According to Document I, the women of the Seneca Falls movement, assembled to protest against a form of government, existing without the consent of the government, and wished to, declare our right to be free as man is fr ee. The main hope of the suffragettes was to gain their right to vote for government officials and the president. After the doctrine was established in Seneca Falls, NY, women in the north and south realized how unfairly they had been treated compared to men and followed the womens rights movement. Womens strive for a democratic nation spread throughout the people, rooting from women partitioning for their equality to men. Demonstrated in Document C, a woman bends down with her hands clasps and held in chains and asks the question, Am I not a woman and a sister? The African American woman ponders why she is not treated the same way as men and other white women. This is just one example of how the Declaration of Sentiments spread the idea of democracy to women across America. The movement created to establish a successful penitentiary system marked the beginning of discipline over criminals and the hope of stopping crime and rebellion in cities. As stated in Document A, by seeking ou t the youthful and unprotected, who were in the way of temptation, and by religious and moral instruction, by imparting to them useful knowledge, and by giving them industrious and orderly habits, the prison system taught criminals the consequences that can come from their actions and prevented them fro causing uprisings and chaos. The establishment of this system of prisons promoted the democratic beliefs blossoming in the nation. If people were forced to control their actions and take responsibility over themselves, there would be less crime and therefore no need for imprisonment and degradation. Beginning in the early 1820s, educational and religious values became popular among the American society. While women were formerly known for their housework and childcare, they began to take upon roles in education at collegiate levels. Wealthy families began sending their children to private schools and investing in doing whatever they could to make sure their kids had a proper educatio n. Churches were built in most towns and served as a meeting place for the townspeople. Devout Christians looked to these churches for relief from the stress of the governmental situation of the mid 1800s and practiced their right to religious freedom. When the churches are awakened and reformed, the reformation and salvation of sinners will followHarlots, and drunkards, and infidels, and all sorts o abandoned characters , are awakened and converted (Document B). The Church served as a place for repentance and prayer. This along with the penitentiary system, kept the criminals and sinners practicing their beliefs and more so, aware of their sinful actions. The democratic ideals present from 1825 to 1850 cam about because of the reform movements led by the men and women who felt strongly about changing the society of America. In one mans words, the strength numbers, allowed the country to unite and forget their differences, in order to proceed in gaining the freedoms and institutions they had hoped for (Document D). The national government of this time period was not particular strong when making national decisions such as suffrage rights. The number of reform movements allowed the government to see the beliefs of the people and the unpopular belief that the government should be controlled by the citizens of the country, rather than elected government officials.